Monday, December 14, 2015

Understanding Knowledge

Understanding Knowledge - Knowledge is the result of "know" and this occurred after people perform sensing to a particular object. Sensing occurs through human senses, namely: the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Most human knowledge is obtained through the eyes and ears (Soekidjo, Notoadmodjo 2003). (Definition of Knowledge According to Experts)
Definition Knowledge - Knowledge is everything is known, everything is known regarding the case (subject) (composer Tim Big Indonesian Dictionary, 2002).
Knowledge level
Benjamin Bloom (1956), an education expert, made the classification (taxonomy) questions that can be used to stimulate the thinking process in humans. According to Bloom in human thinking skills can be divided into 6 categories:
Knowledge (knowledge)
Skills include factors recall ever studied.
Understanding (comprehension)
Covering an understanding of existing information.
Application (application)
Includes information or knowledge to apply the skills they have learned to new situations.
Analysis (analysis)
Covers sorting information into parts or researching and trying to understand the structure of information.
Synthesis (synthesis)
Includes applying the knowledge and skills that already exist to combine elements into a pattern that was not there before.
Evaluation (evaluation)
Covering decisions or conclude based on criteria that there is usually a question using the word: consider how conclusions. (
Knowledge Measurement
According Soekidjo (2003) measurements can be done with the knowledge of the interview or questionnaire that asks about the content of the material to be measured from the research subject or the respondent.
How to Acquire Knowledge
According Soekidjo (2005) there is a way to acquire knowledge 2, namely:
Traditional or Non-Scientific Method
a. How to try one (Trial and error)
This method has been used in people before the culture perhaps even before the existence of civilization. At that time someone when addressing the issue or problem, the solution efforts done by trial and error alone.
Even now this method is still often used, especially by those who have not or do not know a certain way in solving the problems faced.
b. The way of power or authority
The authorities, both government leaders, religious figures and scientists in principle have the same mechanism in knowledge discovery. This principle is the other person receives the opinions expressed by the people have authority, without first testing or proving the truth either based on empirical facts or based on their own reasoning. This is because the person receiving the opinion considers that what is already true discovery.
Understanding Knowledge
c. Based on personal experience
This is done by repeating the experience gained in solving the problems faced in the past.
d. Through the mind
In line with the cultural development of mankind, the human way of thinking, too evolved. From here man has mempu using reasoning in acquiring knowledge. In other words, in obtaining the truth of human knowledge has used his thoughts.
Modern Scientific Method or manner
New ways or modern in acquiring knowledge in adults is more systematic, logical and scientific. This method is called the method of scientific research

Understanding Constipation, Definition, Papers, Sample, Factors, Causes

Understanding Constipation - Constipation is difficult defecation hardening of the stool (feces) that caused the hormone progesterone increases, bowel shifted by the pressure of the enlarged uterus or consumption of iron. (http: // (Definition Constipation, Definition, paper, example, factors, causes)

Definition Constipation - Constipation is difficult or infrequent defecation may be due to hard or dry feces, causing irregular bowel habits, psychogenic factors, lack of activity, inadequate fluid intake and bowel abnormalities. (Paath, E.F. 2004)

Factors That Cause Constipation.
Hormonal changes that cause decreased muscle tone that will inhibit peristatik bowel movements. If this occurs in pregnant women who have difficulty defecating. (Paath, E.F. 2004)
Physiologically, dehydration, low-fiber diet.
Psikologenik behavior or bad habits (ignoring the urge to defecate) and limp. (
Hormonal namely a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles throughout the body. Slower stomach and small intestine become more relaxed so that the reduced intestinal contraction movement and frequent constipation. (http: //
Tablet iron (iron) provided by doctors Fe tablet usually causes the color of stool (feces) black.
Lifestyle. Lifestyle with a diet low in fiber such as found in vegetables, fruits and grains and high-fat such as in cheese, butter, eggs and meat ( 2006).
An increase in the hormone progesterone, which slows the digestive process that makes the condition tend to be harder stool and more difficult to get out. (http: //
Less drinking.
Lack of exercise.
Bowel habits are bad. (
Enlarged uterus pressing the colon and rectum so disturbing excretion. (Arisman. 2004).
Increased relaxation of the muscles of the digestive tract due to the increase of certain hormones during pregnancy so that the system pembuagan leftovers to be slow. (Eisenberg, A. 1996)

The characteristics of patients with constipation
Defekasinya felt to be difficult and painful.
Hard feces.
Straining at defecation.
Uncomfortable .
Defecation only three times or less than a week.
Bloated. (Sherry, j. 2000).
I am not feeling well.
Lower back pain.
Blackish stool color.
Stomach nausea.
Taste in the mouth.
Tongue dry.
Decreased appetite. (

Normal bowel movement is 3 times a day to 3 days. Said to be constipated when bowel movement fewer than three times per week or more than 3 days no bowel movement should push excessively. ( Constipation usually occurs in pregnant women second and third trimester. (Piego, J.H. 2004)

Food into the colon, the colon absorbs water and forms a waste material leftover food or feces. Colonic muscle contraction this will push the stool toward the rectum. Once reaching the rectum, the stool will be solid because most of the water will be absorbed. Hard stools and constipation occurs due to dry on the colon absorbs too much water. This happens because the muscle contractions of the colon too perlahah-land and lazy sehigga causing the stool to move towards the colon for too long. ( WINARSIH.2006). Another cause due to hormonal changes that cause decreased muscle tone that will inhibit peristatik bowel movements. Then pregnant women will have difficulty defecating. (Paath, E.F. 2004)

Constipation commonly occurs because of abnormalities in the colon or in transit in the anorectal function as a result of motility disorders, primary, use of certain drugs or associated with a large number of systemic diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Constipation can arise from a defect filling and emptying the rectum. Charging rectum imperfect occur when colonic peristaltic ineffective (eg when there is a large obstruction caused by the disease hirsehprung). Constipation tends to settle with sendirinya.Tinja large and hard in the rectum become difficult and even painful if issued, so it is more common retention and formed a vicious circle. Distention of the rectum and colon reducing the defecation reflex sensitivity and effectiveness and the effectiveness of the peristaltic reflex defecation. Finally the liquid from the proximal colon can percolate around the kidney harsh and out of the rectum unnoticed. (

Constipation due.

In a person who experience constipation, as a result of the absorption of fluid continues, then the stool will become more dense and hard and dense mengeras.Tinja lead to increasingly difficult defecation that will cause hemorhoid. (http: // /.1.1/WINARSIH2006).

Understanding Constipation

Treatment and Prevention of Constipation.
Avoid refined foods that can cause constipation. (Eisenberg, A.1996).
Consumption of foods high in fiber which is very useful to soften the stool so as to facilitate elimination (elimination of wastes of the body).
Avoid too often consume meat.
Drink at least eight glasses of fluid sehar (Piego, JH 2004)
Avoid using laxatives unless it is recommended by doctors.
Get used to a regular bowel movement every day, for example, each morning. Warm drinks in the morning after waking up can stimulate bowel movements.
Wait until the urge to defecate appears to go to the toilet, do not rush and do not delay the urge to defecate appears to go to the toilet.
The use of laxatives is done by medical personnel to note if the alternative ways to no avail. http: //
Perform regular light exercise such as running (jogging).
Consult your medicine if you are still difficult defecation (http: //
Get enough rest (Piego, J.H. 2004)
Swimming several times a week to help stimulate the body's systems.
Eat a balanced diet with lots of bread, wheat, fruits and vegetables. (Sherry, 2000)
Eating fruit skins such as apples and pears. (Hunter, H. 2005).

Saturday, December 12, 2015

Understanding Student Interests According to the experts, Definitions, Article

Understanding Interest in Learning - The interest is a fixed mental tendency to notice and remember some of the activity or activities (Slameto, 1995). Someone who is interested in an activity and attention it consistently with pleasure. Understanding Interest in Learning Students According to Experts

Student Interests definition According to the experts -according Kartono (1995), the interest is moments from the tendency of intensive soul-directed to an object which is considered the most effective (feelings, emotional) in which there are elements of effective (emotions) strong , Interest is also associated with personality. So in the interest of the introduction of further elements (cognitive), emotional (affective), and capabilities (conative) to achieve an object, a person of a problem or a situation that is concerned with the self (Buchori, 1985)

Biology is the study of life. All living things become objects of biology. Therefore biology berobyekkan living objects. So pretty much the sciences are incorporated in it. Biology as a science is also an object on the aspects of interest. Thus, it can give birth bidangbiologi reaction senag feelings, joy, and enthusiasm for learning, and vice versa, depending on the personality of the students themselves are of high interest to the field of biology or not (Ahmadi, 1998).

Understanding Student Interests According to the experts - According Hardjana (1994), the interest is high liver tendency towards something that arises due to the need, perceived or not perceived or desire certain things. Interests can be interpreted tendency to be attracted or compelled to pay attention to someone for something or activities in certain fields (Lockmono, 1994).

Interest may be because what activities and as a result of participating in an activity. Because of the interest in learning is the tendency of the heart to learn to get the information, knowledge, skills through business, teaching or experience (Hardjana, 1994).

According to Gie (1998), interest means busy, interested, or looks entirely with something of activity since realized the importance of that activity. Thus, interest in learning is entirely a student's involvement with all activities of the mind is attentive to acquire knowledge and achieve an understanding of scientific knowledge at the school from which they graduated.

Great interest influence on learning activities. Students who are interested in biology will study biology in earnest as studious, happy to follow the presentation of biology, and can even find difficulties in learning to solve problems and practical exercises because of the appeal obtained by studying biology. Students will easily memorize the lessons that interest him. Interest is closely linked to motivation. Motivation arises because of the need, as well as interest, thus fitting when the interest is a motivational tool. The learning process will run smoothly when accompanied interests. Therefore, teachers need to arouse the interest of students so that the students lessons given easy to understand (Hasnawiyah, 1994).

Psychiatric conditions is needed in the learning process. That means that interest as a psychiatric aspects spawned its own charm to look at a particular object.

Based on the results of psychological research shows that lack of interest in learning could lead to a lack of interest in a particular field, it can even give birth to teachers rejection (Slameto, 1995).

Interest is one of the main factors for success in the study. Studies in the United States on one of the major causes of the failure of the students study suggests that the cause is the lack of interest (GIE, 1998).

According to Gie (1998), the importance of interest in relation to the implementation of the study is
Interests childbirth attention immediately.
Memudahnya interest in the creation of concentration.
Interests prevent interference from outside
Interest in strengthening the attachment of learning materials in the memory.
Interests reduce boredom in the self-study learning.

Interests spawned spontaneous attention that allows the creation of concentration for a long time thus, the interest is the foundation for concentration. Interest is very personal, others can not grow in self-esteem, can not maintain and develop interest in it, and probably not interested in something as a representative from each student (GIE, 1995).

Interest and attention to learning are intimately connected once. Someone who is interested in a particular subject, usually tend to pay attention to these subjects. Conversely, if a person is continuously paying attention either consciously or not a particular object, can usually generate interest in the object.

If a student has a particular interest in the subject he will. But on the contrary if the student is not interested, the focus on subjects that are being taught are usually he is lazy to do it. Likewise, students who do not pay attention to the subjects taught, it is difficult that students are expected to learn well. This certainly affects the learning outcomes (Kartono, 1995).

An interest can be expressed through a statement indicating that the student is more like a thing than anything else, may be manifested through participation in an activity. Students who have an interest in a particular subject tend to give greater attention to the subject.

Interest is not inborn but acquired later. The interest in something learned since birth but gained later. Interest in something learned and influence subsequent learning as well as affect the acceptance of new interests. So interest in something is the result of learning and study support further even though interest in something that does not is essential to be able to learn it.

Develop an interest in something basically is to help students see how the relationship between the material expected to be learned by himself as an individual. This process is meant to show students how a particular knowledge or skills to influence him, serve its objectives, satisfy its needs. When students realize that learning is a tool to achieve several goals as important and when students see that from the results of their learning experiences will bring progress on her, most likely students will be interested and motivated to learn.

Thus the need for businesses or thought that can provide solutions to increase student interest, particularly with regard to the field of biology. Interest as an aspect of the obligation is not an innate aspect, but rather the conditions that formed after influenced by the environment. Because of the interest of its fickle and very dependent on the individual.

Interest in learning can be reminded through the practice of concentration. Concentration is a mental activity to observe an object in depth. It can be said that concentration arises if a person has an interest in an object, and vice versa is a psychological condition that is needed in teaching and learning in schools. The condition is very important that proper concentration will give birth to a high concentration of attention attitude towards the object being studied.

Interest as one of the psychological aspect is influenced by several factors, both the nature of the (internal) or outside (external). Viewed from within the students, interest is influenced by the ideals, satisfaction, needs, talents and habits. Meanwhile, when seen from the outside factors do not settle its interest but can be changed according to the environmental conditions. The external factors may include complete facilities and infrastructure, relationships with parents and the public perception of an object as well as socio-cultural background (Slameto, 1995).

According Slameto (1995), the factors that influence the above can be addressed by teachers in schools by:
Presentation materials designed systematically, more practical and more berserni presentation.
Provide stimulus to the students to pay high attention to the field of study that is being taught.
Develop the habit of regular
Improve the physical condition of the students.
Maintain the ideals and aspirations of the students.
Oenunjang provide adequate facilities.

Interest in learning to form specific academic attitude that is very personal to each student. Therefore, interest in learning must be grown solely by each student. The only other party to strengthen and foster interest or to maintain the interest that has been owned by someone (Loekmono, 1994).

Interest related to certain values. Therefore, contemplate values in the learning activity is very useful to generate interest. For example learning to pass exams, a champion, an expert in one of the sciences, satisfy curiosity to get a degree or get a job. Thus the interest in learning does not have to depart from the value or motivation grandiose. If the interest in learning obtained in turn will raise the concentration or seriousness in learning (Sudarmono, 1994)

Loekmono (1994), suggests that an important motif 5 points that can be used as a reason to encourage the growth of interest in learning within a student yiatu:
A desire to obtain the values are better in all subjects.
An inner urge to satisfy curiosity in one or another field of study.
The desire of students to improve student growth and personal development.
The desire of students to receive praise from parents, teachers or friends.
Picture yourself in the future to achieve success in a particular field.
Student interest

Some steps to generate interest in learning according to (Sudarnono, 1994), namely:
Directing attention to the objectives to be achieved.
Regarding the game elements in learning activities.
Plan learning activities and to follow the plan.
Make sure learning objectives at that time for example; finish homework or report.
Get satisfaction after completing a study schedule.
Be positive in the face of learning activities.
Exercising freedom of emotions during the study.

Understanding Financial Statements Company Type Services, Industry according to Experts

Understanding Financial Statements Corporate - In Accounting Principles Indonesia (Association Akuntaan Indonesia, 1974) said that the financial statements are balance sheet and income statement as well as all the particulars contained in annexes among other sources and uses of funds, while by Zaki Baridwan (1995: 4) suggests that the financial statements are an end result of recording, which is a series of financial transactions that occurred during the financial year of the company concerned. Next

Based on the definition mentioned above it can be concluded that the financial report the company is the output of a process of information systems derived from the events of the economy that includes Revenue cycle, expense cycles, financial cycles recorded / inputted and processed in accordance with accounting principles applicable general. This was confirmed again by Scott (1986: 67) through the description of the process of information systems that include; Input, Processing, and Output / reports. This was confirmed again by Michael A. Diamond (1993: 22) as follows:
"Financial Statements are the principal product of the accounting information system, communicating to inteeerest userts information on a firm's financial position, its liquidity and profitability, and significant changes in its resources and obligations."

The opinion suggests that the financial report is the result of an accounting information system, as a communication medium for users to find out information about the company's financial position both in terms of liquidity and profitability, as well as significant changes to the available resources.
Financial statements prepared or manufactured with the intent to provide an overview or a progress report (Progress Report) periodically conducted by the management concerned. So the financial statements is historical as well as thorough and as a progress report financial report consists of data that is the result of a combination of: a fact that has been noted (recorded fact), principles and practices in accounting (accounting converntion and postulate ), a personal opinion (personal judgment).

Type of Financial Statements
The main types of financial reports and supporting financial report consists of:
A list which describes the balance of the company's financial position at a certain date.
calculation of profit / loss that describes the number of results, Cost and Profit / Loss of the company in a given period.
Sources and Uses of funds report. Here published sources and expenditures of the company during the period
Cash flow statement. Here is described the sources and uses of cash in a period.
Laproan cost of production which describe how and what elements are taken into account in the cost of production usatu goods.
Retained Earnings report, explaining the position of retained earnings which are not distributed to shareholders.
Statement of Changes in capital, capital position well explain the changes in the share capital in limited liability companies or limited liability company.

Janis financial statements of some of the above, will be described as follows:
a) Balance Sheet (Financial Position)
The balance sheet or balance list called statement of financial position of the company. This report describes the position of assets, liabilities, and capital at a given time. This report can be compiled every saaat and a hospitalization situation of financial position at that time. Contents / components of the balance sheet consist of:
1. Assets, Asset (Asset)
Asset is a treasure owned companies that play a role in company operations cash, inventory, fixed assets, assets which did not materialize, and others. Understanding these assets put forward by various parties as follows:
According to the Principal Accounting Board (APB) Statement (1970: 132) stated that:
"Economic wealth of companies, including the delayed loading, assessed and recognized in accordance accepted accounting principles."

Furthermore, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) (1985) gives the following definition:
"Asset is the possibility of economic benefits obtained or controlled in the future by certain institutions as a result of past transactions or events."

Based on these definitions above, it can be said that something is regarded as assets if in the future can be expected to provide a positive net cash inflow to the company.
Further classification of assets owned by the company consists of various kinds. In general, the classification of fixed assets consists of: 1) tangible fixed assets (Fixed Assets), and 2) Intangible fixed assets (Intangible Assets). Tangible fixed assets include all the items owned by the company with the purpose to be used actively in the company's operations, and has a period of relatively permanent usability. Tangible fixed assets that have a limited period of usefulness must be depreciated over the period of usefulness, and are presented in the balance sheet at book value (acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation). Which termaduk in this asset class are buildings, machinery and factory equipment, furniture and office equipment, vehicles and transport equipment, work tools garage, natural resource assets. Medium tangible fixed assets that have an unlimited period of usefulness, are presented in the balance sheet at cost. While intangible assets include the rights of preference (preferential) which are guaranteed by law, contracts, agreements and have a useful life in a relatively permanent.
Furthermore, according to Harnanto (1991: 357), for operating management investment (assets), covering the entire machinery and equipment and other plant equipmen as well as working capital to be managed or operated placed in the company's efforts to generate profits.
Based on the definition above shows that the operational point of view of investment, fixed assets is one of the important elements that should be the focus of attention for the company in its operations in relation to generate income / profit. Besides, for the purpose of maintenance conditions fixed assets both tangible and intangible fixed in productive conditions for companies required for depreciation and amortization as a process of allocation of the cost of fixed assets.

2. Liabilities / debts (Liabilities)
According to the definition given by APB that:
"Economic liability of a company that is recognized and valued seusuai accounting principles. Here liabilities including deferred credit balance that is not a debt or obligation. "

Based on the above definition, the economic liability for the company is defined as a surrender of property or services in the future. Furthermore, FASB gives definitions of the following obligations:
"... .kemungkinan Sacrifice economic wealth in the future arising from the company's obligation is now to provide property or provide services to others in the future as a result of a transaction or occurrence that has happened."

The definition above shows that the obligation to have three main properties; (1) the obligation exists, (2) the obligation can not be avoided, (3) the obligation that obliges the company has occurred.
Liability if categorized in accordance with the time period, then there is a short-term liabilities (Current liabilities) and long-term liabilities (long-term liabilities). According Harnanto (1991: 59), long-term debt is all debt that is due for payment beyond the time limit of one year from the balance sheet date or payment will not be made in the period of operating cycle, but longer than the deadline. Bonds payable hipoteik, bank debt (credit investments) are examples of long-term debt.
In the company's operation, long-term debt is a source of capital at risk, because it has a commitment to make a payment according to the number agreed upon, although the company at a loss though, so that the debt can only bear the risk exceeds the amount of their own capital. This is confirmed by Harnanto (1991: 304) that the greater the proportion of debt in the capital structure of the company, the greater the likelihood of inability to repay the loan and interest on the maturity date. The statement means that for creditors that the possibility of the participation of the funds they invest in the company, to stake the greater the risk of loss as well. As for the owners, especially common shareholders, adaaanya debt in the company is also a risk of its own against the possibility of losses facing of funds they invest. But the risk is also offset their hopes of obtaining a higher profit rate (profitability) as a result of using foreign capital. But keep in mind that the proportion of debt / foreign capital which will result in excessive management flexibility to switch on profitable activities that will be covered and faces many obstacles / tintangan.
3. Capital Owner (Owner's Equity)
Equity is a remaining rights to the assets of an institution (entity) after deducting liabilities. Category capital can be different for every company that is in a private company is the capital value of the owner's own capital. While the company consists of the company's paid up capital and capital from earnings (retained earnings).

b) Profit and loss statements (Profit & Loss)
Committee on Terminology provides definitions profit as the number derived from a reduction in the cost of production, other costs, and loss of income or operating income. Meanwhile, according to APB Statement defines income as excess / deficit of income over expenses for an accounting period.
From the definition above, the profit or loss represents the difference between a positive or negative difference obtained from the operating and non-operating company against costs in the accounting period that led to a change in the position of equity (net assets) of the company. This was confirmed again by FASB Statement by defining Accounting Income or Profit accounting as the change in equity (net assets) of an entity during a given period resulting from transactions and events or events that come from not the owner. Contents / components of the income statement consists of:

1. Income / outcome (Revenue)
Revenue / results (revenue) is the result of the sale / delivery of services by the company to the customer or recipient of services. According to Harahap (2002: 114) argues that:
"An income will be recognized as revenue in the period when the main activities needed to produce and sell goods and services that have been completed."

The definition emphasizes the recognition of revenue in terms of time. Viewed from the side, the time of revenue recognition can be an alternative; (1) during production, (2) during the production process is completed, (3) at the time of sale / delivery of services, (4) at the time of billing Cash.

2. Cost (Expense)
According to the APB defined as a decrease in the gross asset or an increase in the gross liability recognized and assessed according to accepted accounting principles derived from profit-seeking activities by the company. Meanwhile, according to FASB defines expense as an outflow of assets, the use of assets or the emergence of a liability or a combination of both during a period caused by the delivery of goods, the manufacture of goods, loading services, or the implementation of other activities is the main activity of the company.
Classification of costs consist of; (costs associated with earnings in that period, (2) costs associated with a specific period that is not associated with income, (3) the cost akrena practical reasons can not be associated with any period.

3. Profit and loss Incidental (Incidental Incidental Gains and loses)
According to FASB Equity Gains are rising value of transactions that are incidental and not the main activities of the entity and of transactions or other events affecting the entity except dive a certain period or the proceeds derived from the investment of the owner. While loses is the decline in equity from transactions that are incidental and not the main activities of the entity and of all transactions other events affecting the entity during a certain period except those derived from fees or granting to the owner (prive).
Understanding Financial Statements

4. Extraordinary (Extraordinary items)
Extraordinary items are events or transactions that materially affect that is not expected to occur repeatedly and are not considered to be a recurring thing in the process of regular operasiyang of sautu company. According to PAI criteria Extraordinary item is: (1) is abnormal (unusual), it means to have the level of abnormality that steeper and not related to the company's activities daily, (2) do not often occur, or are not expected to occur in the future which will come..
Reporting extraordinary items should be separated from the day-to-day business and are shown separately in the statement of income is accompanied by disclosure of the nature and amount.
Furthermore, according to Michael A. Diamond (1993: 23) that:
"... The four play financial statements are the balance sheet, the income stattement, the retained earnings statement, and the statement of cash flows."

The definition above shows that among the various financial reports is usually presented by the company, then there are four of them are primary financial statements that are commonly used are: neraraca report, income statement, statement of retained earnings, and cash flow statement.